Differential effects of activated protein C on synovial fibroblasts in response to hypoxia and normoxia

Park, Yang-Gyu and Choi, Jawun and Song, Inkyu and Jackson, Christopher J. and Park, Sang-Youel and Seol, Jae-Won (2017) Differential effects of activated protein C on synovial fibroblasts in response to hypoxia and normoxia. Sains Malaysiana, 46 (10). pp. 1895-1902. ISSN 0126-6039


Official URL: http://www.ukm.my/jsm/english_journals/vol46num10_...


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints and their lining or synovium. Previous studies showed that the synovium in RA patients is more hypoxic than normal synovium. Activated protein C (APC) has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory effects and is highly expressed in the joints of RA patients. We examined the effect of APC on RA and normal synovial fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from the synovial tissues of RA patients and normal controls and cells were exposed to recombinant APC under normoxic (21% oxygen) or hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assays. Cell lysates and conditioned media were collected and assayed for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and p38 using zymography and western blots. Proliferation of both normal and RA synovial fibroblasts dose-dependently increased after APC treatment in normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia, APC enhanced RA cell proliferation but had no effect on normal fibroblasts. MMP-2 production and activation were significantly augmented by APC in both cell types under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. However, activated MMP-2 was more reduced in cells under hypoxia than normoxia. APC substantially reduced the phosphorylation of p38 in normal and RA synovial fibroblasts under hypoxia. No difference in p38 phosphorylation was observed under normoxia. The receptor for APC, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), was elevated in normal fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions whereas in RA cells, EPCR was highly expressed under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that hypoxia enhanced the effect of APC on RA synovial fibroblasts through activation of MMP2 and inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. Our results suggested that APC may suppress joint destruction and progression of inflammation in a hypoxic RA environment.

Item Type:Article
Keywords:Activated protein C; Hypoxia; MMP-2; Rheumatoid arthritis; Synovial fibroblast
Journal:Sains Malaysiana
ID Code:11549
Deposited By: ms aida -
Deposited On:04 Apr 2018 06:58
Last Modified:10 Apr 2018 10:05

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