Synthesis of ISO grade 46 and 68 biolubricant from palm kernel fatty acids

Murad Bahadi, and Jumat Salimon, and Darfizzi Derawi, (2022) Synthesis of ISO grade 46 and 68 biolubricant from palm kernel fatty acids. Sains Malaysiana, 51 (8). pp. 2507-2529. ISSN 0126-6039


Official URL:


Bio-based lubricant is crucial to be developed considering the toxicity risk, climate change, energy security, and green-environmental approach. Palm kernel fatty acids based biolubricants were synthesized by the homogeneous acid-catalyzed esterification reaction between palm kernel fatty acids with selected polyhydric alcohols; trimethylolpropane (TMP), di-trimethylolpropane (Di-TMP), and pentaerythritol (PE). The reaction optimization is done using a D-optimal design based on four parameters; the ratio of reactants, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst loading. The optimum yield range between 80 and 87%, with more than 93% the selectivity of biolubricant products. The chemical structures of synthesized Palm kernel fatty acids-based biolubricants were characterized and confirmed using FTIR, NMR (1 H and 13C) spectroscopies, and GC-FID chromatography. The FTIR spectra of palm kernel fatty acids-based biolubricants products clearly showed the peaks of C=O and C–O of the ester group at 1741-1740 cm-1 and 1234-1152 cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, 1 H NMR spectra confirmed the ester group’s proton chemical shift (-CH2 -O-) at 3.96- 4.11 ppm. The 13C NMR spectra confirmed the carbon chemical shifts of ester carbonyl (C=O) signals at 173.5-173.2 ppm. The results for lubrication properties have shown that the palm kernel fatty acids based biolubricants have low-temperature properties with pour points value in the range of -5 to -10 °C, a high flash point of 320-360 °C, a high viscosity index (VI) of 140.86-154.8, the kinematic viscosity of 41.76-87.06 cSt (40 °C), 8.73-14.77 cSt (100 °C), and thermal stability over 210 °C. All synthetic lubricants are categorized as ISO 46 (TMP triester) and ISO 68 (Di-TMP tetraester and PE tetraester).

Item Type:Article
Keywords:Biolubricant; Fatty acids; Palm kernel; Polyhydric alcohols; Polyol esters
Journal:Sains Malaysiana
ID Code:20459
Deposited By: ms aida -
Deposited On:07 Nov 2022 03:44
Last Modified:10 Nov 2022 07:12

Repository Staff Only: item control page